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Atmospheric Optics Glossary


... and so large that the mountings of most astronomical telescopes are adjusted to mini-mize the effects of refraction. See also terrestrial refraction . B BOUNDARY LAYER: A relati-vely thin layer of fluid next to a boundary (such as a solid ...

Astronomical refraction


Astronomical refraction Astronomical Refraction Terminology “ Astronomical refraction ” is the angular displacement of astronomical objects from their true or geometrical position, because of the bending of rays in the Earth's ...



Refraction Refraction Introduction For thousands of years, people have noticed that a stra-ight stick placed obliquely in water appears to be broken at an angle where it enters the wa-ter. This is the origin of the term “refraction,” which ...

Alphabetical index to the green-flash, mirage, and refraction pages


... flashes Arago: (many bibliography entries; start with his paper with Biot ) artifacts in pictures astronomical refraction (see also the refraction physics page). atoptics website avoiding eye injury in observing green flashes award from ...

Atmospheric Refraction Phenomena


Atmospheric Refraction Phenomena Atmospheric Refraction Phenomena Mirages and green flashes , the main topics of this website, are only some of the phenomena caused by ref-raction in the Earth's atmosphere. To put everything into ...

Calculation of Astronomical Refraction


Calculation of Astronomical Refraction Calculation of Astronomical Refraction Introduction To calculate the refraction, we must know the refractive index in the region through which the rays of light pass. For astronomical refraction, this ...

Understanding Astronomical Refraction


Understanding Astronomical Refraction Understanding Astronomical Refraction Preamble The textbooks present atmospheric refraction as a complicated subject, replete with arcane fo-rmulae, bizarre series expansions, and approximations that ...

Introduction to the atmospheric-refraction bibliography


... Annotated Green-Flash and Mirage Bibliography Introduction For many years, I have been collecting references on atmospheric refraction and sunset phenomena, starting with papers I needed to calculate airmass, back when I was reducing ...

Symmetry in Atmospheric Refraction


Symmetry in Atmospheric Refraction Symmetry in Atmospheric Refraction Introduction Some of the complexity of refraction phenomena can be reduced by considerations of symmetry. This page discusses several of these. Reversibility of rays ...

Integration of the Differential Equation for Refraction


Integration of the Differential Equation for Refraction Integrating the Differential Equation for Refraction The differential of refraction is dr  =  −(tan z) dn/n , so the refraction integral is r  =  − ∫ n 1  tan z dn/n ; but ...

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